Bitcoin

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Bitcoin
Prevailing bitcoin logo
額面
復數 bitcoins
紀號 ₿ (Unicode: U+20BF BITCOIN SIGN (HTML ₿))[注 1]
BTC,[注 2]XBT[注 3]
正名 10−8
補助單位 (較細)
 ​11000 millibitcoin
 ​1Pang-bô͘:Val microbitcoin
 ​1Pang-bô͘:Val satoshi[2]
開發
設計者 Satoshi Nakamoto
白皮書 "Bitcoin: APeer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System"[4]
實si Bitcoin Core
頭仔
版本
0.1.0/ 2009 年 1月 9日​ (15年 以前)​ (2009-01-09)
最近
版本
22.0/ 2021 年 9月 13日​ (2年 以前)​ (2021-09-13) [3]
原始碼
版本庫
github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin
開發
狀況
Active
網站 bitcoin.org
記少冊
記數冊
開始
2009 年 1月 3日​ (15年 以前)​ (2009-01-03)
考訊的
時間標記
Proof-of-work (partial hash inversion)
Hash關數 SHA-256 (two rounds)
發行 Decentralized (block reward)
Initially ₿50 per block, halved every 210,000 blocks[7]
Block獎勵 ₿6.25[注 4]
Block時間 10分鐘
琉通
供級
₿18,925,000[注 5]
琉通
限濟
₿21,000,000[5][注 6]
評價
匯率 變動
時架
總額
>US$775 cha̍p-ek[注 7]
統計
官方
使用者
 El Salvador[8]

Bitcoin (倚音: "bi̍t-kho͘-gîn") ()Satoshi Nakamoto發名的 (hoat-bêng--ê) (tiám) (tùi)電子 (tiān-chú)現金 (hiān-kim)系統 (hē-thóng) (I) (chi̍t) (khoán)暗碼 (àm-bé)通貨 (thong-hòe) (cryptocurrency) (kiam)納數 (la̍p-siàu)系統 (payment system)[9]。 Bitcoin ()2008 ()10 (goe̍h)31 (ji̍t)經過 (keng-kòe)一个 (chi̍t-ê)暗碼學 (àm-bé-ha̍k)由京 (iû-kiaⁿ)列單 (lia̍t-toaⁿ) (mailing list) 介紹 (kài-siāu)出來 (chhut--lâi), 2009年 (ê) ()發行 (hoat-hêng)開放 (khai-hòng)原始碼 (goân-sú-bé)阮體 (ńg-thé)

Bitcoin的生產 (seng-sán),是電腦 (tiān-náu)執行 (chip-hêng) () (chò) "採掘 (chhái-ku̍t)" (mining) 的工課 (khang-khòe)時陣 (sî-chūn)產生 (sán-seng)獎勵 (chióng-lē)。 2017年3月2日, Bitcoin (thâu) (kái) ()單位的 (tan-ūi--ê)價值 (kè-ta̍t)超過 (chhiau-kòe)1 ounce--的黃金 (n̂g-kim).[10]

設計 (Siat-kè)[edit]

Blockchain[edit]

Bitcoin (khò)blockchain (意思 (ì-sù)是 "block (liān)") 運作 (ūn-chok)。 Blockchain是記錄 (kì-lio̍k)Bitcoin交易 (kau-e̍k)少項 (siàu-hāng) (transaction) ͘͘的公開 (kong-khai)總簿 (chóng-phō͘) (ledger).[11] (Che)是一款 ()需要 (su-iàu)經過 (siū)信任 (sìn-jīm)中央 (tiong-iong)機關 (ki-koan) (lâi)次女 (chhù-lí)數目 (siàu-ba̍k)的系統。 Blockchain是利用 (lī-ēng)濟濟 (chē-chē)執行Bitcoin軟體 (nńg-thé)node (相接 (sio-chiap)點) 相接的電腦網路 (bāng-lō͘) (leh)運轉 (ūn-choán).[9] Bitcoin的來往 (lâi-óng) (ē) (hiòng)職的 (chit-ê)網路放送 (hòng-sàng).[12] (hō͘) (chia)佇網路內面 (lāi-bīn)的node (thang)檢驗 (kiám-giām) (siàu)的來往, () (ji̍p) (in)告別 (kò-pia̍t)的總簿頂面 (téng-bīn) (koh) ()遮總簿的數目 (siàu-bo̍k)放送予別个 (pa̍t-ê)node。 Blockchain本身 (pún-sin)是一 (chióng)分散 (hun-sòaⁿ) (sek)資料 (chu-liāu) (khò͘),佇逐个 (ta̍k-ê)node (lóng) (khǹg) (kui) (hūn)blockchain的可鱉 (khó͘-pih).[13] (cho͘)予人接受 (chiap-siū)的bitcoin來往, (tiō)是一个block,美一 (tōaⁿ)辭工 (sî-kang) (to̍h)產生新的 (sin-ê)block加入 (ka-ji̍p)blockchain, ()chhiá向所有 (só͘-ū)的node發佈 (hoat-pò͘)。這予bitcoin軟體通確定 (khak-tēng)當時 (tang-sî) (ū)一定 (it-tēng)數量 (sò͘-liōng)的bitcoin予人支出 (chi-chhut)原城 (goân-sêng)佇無中央監督 (kàm-tok)情形 (chêng-hêng)當中 (tang-tiong)防止 (hông-chí)雙重 (siang-têng)支出 (double-spending).[6]

少項[edit]

Bitcoin的數項 (siàu-hāng) (transaction) 是 (ēng)一款 (kap)Forth欲仝 (beh-kâng)跤本 (kha-pún)言語 (giân-gí)記的 (kì--ê).[6]:ch。 5來往數 (Lâi-óng-siàu) (hâm)告別一 (hāng)以上 (í-siōng)入數 (ji̍p-siàu) (input) 佮出數 (chhut-siàu) (output)。 (Tong)用者 (iōng-chiá) (sàng) (chhut)Bitcoin的時陣,伊 (ài)址中 (chí-tèng) (beh)出數的住址 (chū-chí)佮送出的Bitcoin數量。 (Ūi) (tio̍h)免得 (bián-tit) (siang)tnêg支出, (ta̍k) (tiâu)入數攏有 (tòa)指定 (chí-tēng)早前 (chá-chêng)佇blockchain內面一條未支出 (bī-chi-chhut)的出數.[14] ()一條來往數會當 (ē-tàng) (chē)條出數,所以 (só͘-í)用者通佇一改來往當中向濟的 (chē-ê)接受封 (chiap-siū-hong)送出bitcoin。佇入數內面家出來 (ke--chhut-lâi) (chîⁿ) (chiâⁿ)做來往費用 (hùi-iōng) (transaction fee).[14] 這來往費用是無強制 (kiông-chè) (la̍p).[14] 總是 (Chóng-sī)採掘方 (chhái-ku̍t-hong) (kéng) (siàu)出來 (chhut-lâi)次女的時陣,是優先 (iu-sian) (chhōe) (kiáu)費用 (khah) (koân)的數。費用關係 (koan-hē) (tio̍h)來往數 (chiàm)存檔 (chûn-tóng)大小 (tōa-sió),所以著關係產生 (he)來往數的入數數目數量.[6]

所有 (Só͘-iú)[edit]

佇blockchain內面, Bitcoin是登記 (teng-kì)佇一定的住址 (address)。住址的建立 (kiàn-li̍p)亂數 (loān-sò͘) (kéng)出一 (chōa)西奇 (sai-khia)鎖匙 (só-sî) (private key),而chhiá計算 (kè-sǹg)對應 (tùi-èng)的Bitcoin住址。 (Chiàu)設計是無法度 (hoat-tō͘)對住址 (sǹg)出西奇鎖匙。另外 (Lēng-gōa)因為 (in-ūi)鎖匙的可能 (khó-lêng)數量 (siuⁿ) (tōa),照理想 (lí-sióng) ()無法度算出已經 (í-keng) (teh)使用 (sú-iōng)的西奇鎖匙/住址的配對 (phòe-tùi) ()欲支出Bitcoin,所有者 (só͘-iú-chiá)知影 (chai-iáⁿ)家己 (ka-tī)的西奇鎖匙而chhiá共數項做數位 (sò͘-ūi)簽名 (chhiam-miâ)。佇外口 (gōa-kháu)網路 (hit) (pêng) (to̍h)公家 (kong-ke)鎖匙來檢驗簽名.[6]:ch。 5

彩滑 (Chhái-ku̍t)[edit]

(kóng)的採掘 (mining) 實際 (si̍t-chè) (siōng)是利用電腦的次女能力 (lêng-le̍k)保持 (pó-chhî)記錄的工課。彩滑公 (Chhái-ku̍t-kang)會當經過做 (chit)項工課 (tit)酬金 (siû-kim).[15] 彩滑公的工課是共 (sin)放送入網路受檢驗的來往數項 (pun)block,保持 (liáu)blockchain的一致 (it-tì)完備 (oân-pī),佮袂當 (bē-tàng) (têng)改的性質 (sèng-chit).[11] 逐个block和一 (pit) (sio̍k) (chêng) ()block的SHA-256暗碼學hash.[11] "Blockchain" 職的號名 (hō-miâ)來源 (lâi-goân)就是 (hia) (sio)牽連 (khan-liân)的block.[6]:ch。 7[11]

新的block產生,愛 (kòa)做功 (chò-kang)證明 (chèng-bêng) (proof-of-work), (chiah)通號規个 (kui-ê)網路接受.[11] 做公 (Chò-kang)證明需要採掘工 (chhái-ku̍t-kang) (khì)揣一 (chō͘)hō chònonce號碼 (hō-bé).[6]:ch。 8這項證明會當 (hō͘)網路簡單 (kán-tan)來檢驗,毋過 (m̄-koh)欲產生是 (chin) (hùi) (kang)。愛試驗 (chhì-giām)濟改無 (kâng)的nonce,才會當 (ta̍t) (kàu)困難度 (khùn-lân-tō͘)目標 (bo̍k-phiau) (difficulty target).[6]:ch。 8遮講的困難度目標是 (tòe)Bitcoin網路當時 (tong-sî)採掘能力來調整的 (tiâu-chéng--ê)目的 (bo̍k-te̍k)是欲保持約略 (iok-lio̍k)米10分鐘 (hun-cheng) (seⁿ)一个新block的速度 (sok-tō͘).[6]:ch。 8

能源 (Lêng-goân)消費 (siau-hùi)[edit]

Bitcoin採掘工課的電力 (tiān-le̍k)消費有受著批評 (phoe-phêng)。照2015年 (The)Economist的ko͘算,若全部 (choân-pō͘)採掘者 (chhái-ku̍t-chiá)攏用現代 (hiān-tāi)設備 (siat-pī)總合 (chóng-ha̍p)的電力消費可能有166.7 megawatt (美 (tang)1.46 terawatt點鐘 (tiám-cheng)).[16] 到2017年底 (nî-té) (thong)世界 (sè-kài)的bitcoin採掘照ko͘算是愛 (khai)1到4 gigawatt的電力.[17] Politico (pat)指出 (chí-chhut)現今 (hiān-taⁿ)銀行 (gîn-hâng)機關開費 (khai-hùi)約略6% (ê)全球 (choân-kiû)電力,若 (chún)bitcoin用電 (ēng-tiān)程度 (thêng-tō͘) () (chūn)加添 (ka-thiam)100 (pōe)伊的 (i-ê)消費嘛加擔 (ka-taⁿ)全球電力的2%.[18]

注跤 (Chù-kha)[edit]

  1. The symbol was encoded in Unicode version 10.0 at position U+20BF BITCOIN SIGN in the Currency Symbols block in June 2017.[1]
  2. Very early software versions used the code "BC".
  3. Compatible with ISO 4217.
  4. May 2020 to approximately 2024, halved approximately every four years
  5. As of 2022-01-10
  6. The supply will approach, but never reach, ₿21 million. Issuance will permanently halt c. 2140 at ₿20,999,999.9769.[6]:ch。 8
  7. As of 2022-01-10

參考 (Chham-khó)[edit]

  1. "Unicode 10.0.0". Unicode Consortium. 20 June 2017. goân-loē-iông tī 20 June 2017 hőng khó͘-pih. 20 June 2017 khòaⁿ--ê.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  2. Mick, Jason (12 June 2011). "Cracking the Bitcoin: Digging Into a $131M USD Virtual Currency". Daily Tech. goân-loē-iông tī 20 January 2013 hőng khó͘-pih. 30 September 2012 khòaⁿ--ê.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  3. "Bitcoin Core 22.0". 14 September 2021 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  4. Nakamoto, Satoshi (31 October 2008). "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System" (PDF). bitcoin.org. goân-loē-iông (PDF) tī 20 March 2014 hőng khó͘-pih. 28 April 2014 khòaⁿ--ê.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  5. Nakamoto; et al. (1 April 2016). "Bitcoin source code - amount constraints". GitHub. goân-loē-iông tī 1 July 2018 hőng khó͘-pih.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 Pang-bô͘:Cite bo͘k
  7. "Statement of Jennifer Shasky Calvery, Director Financial Crimes Enforcement Network United States Department of the Treasury Before the United States Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Subcommittee on National Security and International Trade and Finance Subcommittee on Economic Policy" (PDF). fincen.gov. Financial Crimes Enforcement Network. 19 November 2013. goân-loē-iông (PDF) tī 9 October 2016 hőng khó͘-pih. 1 June 2014 khòaⁿ--ê.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  8. "El Salvador's dangerous gamble on bitcoin". The editorial board. Financial Times. 7 September 2021. 7 September 2021 khòaⁿ--ê. On Tuesday, the small Central American nation became the first in the world to adopt bitcoin as an official currency. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 Jerry Brito & Andrea Castillo (2013). "Bitcoin: A Primer for Policymakers" (PDF). Mercatus Center. George Mason University. Goân-pún bāng-ia̍h Pó-chûn (PDF) tī 21 September 2013. 22 October 2013 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  10. "Bitcoin value tops gold for first time". BBC.com. 2017-03-03. 2017-03-03 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 "The great chain of being sure about things". The Economist. The Economist Newspaper Limited. 31 October 2015. Goân-pún bāng-ia̍h Pó-chûn tī 3 July 2016. 3 July 2016 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  12. "Bitcoin Wallet". Investopedia. Goân-pún bāng-ia̍h Pó-chûn tī 19 August 2016. 28 June 2016 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  13. Sparkes, Matthew (9 June 2014). "The coming digital anarchy". The Telegraph. London: Telegraph Media Group Limited. Goân-pún bāng-ia̍h Pó-chûn tī 2015-01-23. 7 January 2015 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Joshua A。 Kroll; 燕C。 Davey; Edward W。 Felten (11–12 June 2013). "The Economics of Bitcoin Mining, or Bitcoin in the Presence of Adversaries" (PDF). The Twelfth Workshop on the Economics of Information Security (WEIS 2013). Goân-pún bāng-ia̍h Pó-chûn (PDF) tī 9 May 2016. 26 April 2016 khòaⁿ--ê. A transaction fee is like a tip or gratuity left for the miner。 
  15. Andolfatto, David (31 March 2014). "Bitcoin and Beyond: The Possibilities and Pitfalls of Virtual Currencies" (PDF). Dialogue with the Fed. Federal Reserve Bank of St。 Louis. Goân-pún bāng-ia̍h Pó-chûn (PDF) tī 9 April 2014. 16 April 2014 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  16. "The magic of mining". The Economist. 13 January 2015. Goân-pún bāng-ia̍h Pó-chûn tī 12 January 2015. 13 January 2015 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  17. Mooney, Chris; Mufson, Steven (19 December 2017). "Why the bitcoin craze is using up so much energy". The Washington Post. Goân-pún bāng-ia̍h Pó-chûn tī 9 January 2018. 11 January 2018 khòaⁿ--ê. several experts told The Washington Post that bitcoin probably uses as much as 1多4 gigawatts, or billion watts, of electricity, roughly the output of one to three nuclear reactors. 
  18. Roberts, Paul (9 March 2018). "This Is What Happens When Bitcoin Miners Take Over Your Town - Eastern Washington had cheap power and tons of space。 Then the suitcases of cash started arriving。". Politico. 16 March 2018 khòaⁿ--ê.