Ni-khí

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奶齒 (Ni-khí)齒列 (khí-lia̍t)大約 (tāi-iok) (tùi)出世 (chhut-sì)6古月 (kó͘-goe̍h)開始 (khai-sí)發芽 (hoat-gê) (kàu)2歲半 (hòe-pòaⁿ)左右 (chó-iū) (hoat) (liáu) ()人類 (jîn-lūi) ()1 (thò) (ê)喙齒 (chhùi-khí)。 6 (hòe)左右到12歲左右期間 (kî-kan)奶齒陸續 (lo̍k-sio̍k)脫落 (thoat-lo̍h)換做 (ōaⁿ-chò)永久齒 (éng-kiú-khí) (Chin)少數 (chió-sò͘)情形 (chêng-hêng) () ( sian-thian-sèng khiàm-khoat éng-kiú-khí,oligodontia ) 奶齒 (ē)繼續 (kè-sio̍k)維持 (ûi-tî)三四十歲 (saⁿ-sì-cha̍p-hòe) (chiah)脫落。

奶齒的數目 (sò͘-bo̍k) (kap)名稱 (miâ-chheng)[edit]

奶齒總共 (chóng-kiōng) (ū)20 (khí) (múi)1 (ê)quadrant有5起, ()近心 (kīn-sim)遠心 (oán-sim)分別 (hun-pia̍t)是1 (khí)正中 (chèng-tiong)門齒 (mn̂g-khí), 1齒 (chhek)門齒, 1齒角齒 (kak-khí)佮2齒 (kiū) 齒。為著 (Ūi-tio̍h)簡單 (kán-tan),每1齒奶齒攏有 (lóng-ū)代號 (tāi-hō)比如講 (pí-jû-kóng)Set square systemàn (chiàu)quadrant (ûi)頭前 (thâu-chêng)後壁 (āu-piah) ()鞭藻 (pian-chó)A, B, C, D,佮E。倒爿 (Tò-pêng)頂懸 (téng-koân)的角齒 (tio̍h)寫做 (siá-chò) +C ( C (khǹg) ()倒爿頂懸彼个 (hit-ê)quadrant),其他 (kî-thaⁿ)類推 (lūi-thui)詳細 (Siông-sè) (chhiáng) (khòaⁿ)喙齒 (chia)

奶齒的形態 (hêng-thāi) (kái)phòa[edit]

奶齒的鹹水量 (hâm-chúi-liōng) ()永久齒較濟 (khah-chē) (che)致使 (tì-sú)奶齒的色致 (sek-tì) (chham)永久齒無相 (bô-sio)siâng,奶齒的色致比永久齒 (khah)藍白 (nâ-pe̍h) (a̍h)永久齒比較氣來 (pí-kàu--khì-lâi) (khah) (n̂g)殕色 (phú-sek)。奶齒的起阮部 (khí-gún-pō͘) (cervix) 比永久齒卡收束 (siu-sok)按呢 (án-ne)始得 (sú-tit)奶齒的牙冠 (gê-koan) (crown) ()siuN比齒根 (khí-kin) (ke)真大 (chin-tōa)。奶齒牙關 (gê-koan)牙釉質 (gê-iū-chit)牙本質 (gê-pún-chit) (lóng)大約1 mm (kāu),比永久齒加真薄 (chin-po̍h)。奶齒門齒 (ke̍k)角起 (kak-khí)艱淡 (kan-tāⁿ)有1个齒根,抑臼齒 (kiū-khí)有2个到3个齒根。奶齒臼齒的齒根比永久齒較幼獸 (khah-iù-siù)之間 (chi-kan)距離 (kū-lî)比永久齒較 (tōa)抑就是 (ia̍h-tio̍h-sī) (kóng)齒根 (khui)卡開,袂輸但 (bē-su-nā) (giap)冰角 (peng-kak)鋏仔 (giap-á) (ice tongs)。這个 (Chit-ê)恥開 (thí-khui)鋏仔衡 (giap-á-hêng)的齒根形態是為著 (beh)容納 (iông-la̍p)接續 (chiap-sio̍k)發出 (hoat-chhut)永久 (éng-kiú)小臼齒 (sió-kiū-khí)因此 (in-chhú)地咧 (tī-teh)挽除 (bán-tû)齒根猶未 (iah-bē)吸收 (khip-siu)奶久起 (ni-kiú-khí)時陣 (sî-chūn)就愛 (tio̍h-ài)細膩 (sè-jī)。 奶齒的牙髓腔 (gê-chhóe-khiuⁿ) (pulp chamber) 大小 (tōa-sió) (chiàm)牙關的比例 (pí-lē)比永久齒較大 (khah-tōa),因此小寡 (sió-kóa)蛀空 (chiù-khang)就會 (tio̍h-ē) (chiù)牙髓 (gê-chhóe) (一般 (it-poaⁿ) (lâng)神經 (sîn-keng))。奶齒牙髓發生 (hoat-seng)病變 (pēⁿ-piàn) ()lamina dura破迦 (phò-hāi)常在 (siâng-chāi)出現 (chhut-hiān)佇齒根分歧 (hun-kî) (furcation) 的所在 (só͘-chāi),抑永久齒出現佇齒根尾溜 (bóe-liu) (root apex) 的所在卡濟 (khah-chē)

奶齒出起 (chhut-khí)時間 (sî-kan)[edit]

tóng-àn:Calcification & eruption times.png
Fig:Chhùi-khí kài-hòa kap chhut-khí sî-kan

奶齒的功能 (kong-lêng)[edit]

奶齒的功能毋也 (m̄-ā)哺食 (pō͘-chia̍h)發音 (hoat-im),佮美觀 (bí-koan)益有 (iah-ū)齒列空間 (khong-kan)維持 (ûi-chhî) ( space maintenance ) 佮引島 (ín-tó)永久齒出起 (萌發,teething, eruption ) 的功能。

tóng-àn:Ni-khi kap eng-kiu-khi e koan-he.png
Fig:Ni-khí kap éng-kiú-khí siong-tùi ūi-tì ê koan-hē
  • 引島永久齒出起

永久齒會對奶齒的下跤 (ē-kha)沓沓仔 (ta̍uh-ta̍uh-á)向外 (ǹg-gōa)出起,永久齒沿路 (iân-lō͘)向外發出來 (hoat--chhut-lâi),奶齒的齒根沿路吸收。若準 (Nā-chún)奶齒因為 (in-ūi)蛀齒 (chiù-khí)或才是 (he̍k-chiah-sī)其他原因 (goân-in)提早 (thê-chá)脫落, ()奶齒的引島,永久齒會較慢 (khah-bān)發出。

  • 空間維持

口腔 (Kháu-khiuⁿ)的喙齒有葡徙 (phû-sóa)框上 (kheng-siōng),奶齒的C, D會 (ǹg)遠心浮徙 (phû-sóa) ( distal drifting ),抑奶齒的E佮永久齒的6, 7, 8會向僅參 (kīn-sim) ( mesial ) 葡徙。佇平衡 (pêng-hêng)的哺食肌肉 (ki-bah)系統 (hē-thóng)健康 (kiān-khong)的喙齒情形之下 (chi-hā),喙齒的相對 (siong-tùi)位置 (ūi-tì)達到 (ta̍t-kàu)穩定 (ún-tēng)狀態 (chōng-thāi) ()D (he̍k)E提早脫落或是 (he̍k-sī) (sio)chaip (bīn)蛀齒 ( proximal caries ),遠心佮近心相接 (sio-chiap)的喙齒就會燒瓦架來 (sio-óa--khòe-lâi)造成 (chō-sêng)齒列空間的喪失 (sòng-sit)。齒列近遠心 (kīn-oán-sim)腸肚 (tn̂g-tō͘)減少 (kiám-chió)是致使永久齒發 ()整齊 (chéng-chê)的原因之一 (chi-it).

tóng-àn:Crowding.jpg
Fig:Khong-kan sòng-sit tì-sú éng-kiú-khí hoat bē chéng-chê

奶齒疾病 (chi̍t-pēⁿ)治療 (tī-liâu)[edit]

tóng-àn:Pulpotomy.gif
Fig:Ni-khí ê toān-chhóe tī-liâu
tóng-àn:Pulpectomy.gif
Fig:Ni-khí ê bán-chhóe tī-liâu

因為奶齒的階段性 (kai-tōaⁿ-sèng)特性 (te̍k-sèng),佇治療時考慮 (khó-lū)重點 (tiōng-tiám)按怎 (án-chóaⁿ) (hō͘)囡仔 (gín-á)朋友 (pêng-iú)順利 (sūn-lī)接受 (chiap-siū)治療, 1面維持奶齒的功能, (koh)1面確保 (khak-pó)永久齒列的順利名法 (bêng-hoat)

奶齒蛀齒添補 (thiⁿ-pó͘)治療主要 (chú-iàu)目標 (bo̍k-piau)是予gin (á)朋友會當 (ē-tàng)輕鬆 (kheng-sang)快樂 (khoài-lo̍k)情形下完成 (oân-sêng)治療,抑毋是 (m̄-sī)完美 (oân-bí)的添補。奶齒一般上萬 (siāng-bān)12歲就會橐起 (lok--khí),添補使用 (sú-iōng)材料 (châi-liāu)的考慮佮永久齒無仝 (bô-kâng)。奶齒添補使用的材料 (siāng)代先 (tāi-seng)考慮的是glass ionomer,因為glass ionomer雖然 (sui-jiân) (tòng) () ()毋過 (m̄-koh)連結映 (liâm-kiat-èng)毋免 (m̄-bián)車磨 (chhia-bôa)undercut,按呢就會當盡量 (chīn-liōng)保留 (pó-liû)喙齒,jī (chhiáⁿ)glass ionomer閣會釋出 (sek-chhut)fluoride降低 (kàng-kē)閣蛀齒的基會 (ki-hōe)撒落來 (Soah--lo̍h-lâi)考慮的是銀粉 (gîn-hún) (amalgam),因為 (i)間單 (kan-tan)最後 (Chòe-āu)才是 (chiah-sī)複合 (ho̍k-ha̍p)樹指 (chhiū-chí) (composite resin),因為伊技術 (ki-su̍t)敏感 (bín-kám) () (tio̍h)喙瀾 (chhùi-nōa)嚇射 (heh-e̍k)就會失敗 (sit-pāi)

蛀齒若蛀到牙髓就需要 (su-iàu)根管 (kin-kńg)治療,奶齒的根管治療有分做 (hun-chò)斷髓術 (toān-chhóe-su̍t) (斷髓術,pulpotomy) (kap)挽髓術 (bán-chhóe-su̍t) (挽髓術,pulpectomy) 2 (tióng)傳髓述 (Toān-chhóe-su̍t)就是 (tio̍h-sī)共牙髓腔的牙髓切除 (chhiat-tû) (a̍h)補留 (pó͘-liû)根管的牙髓。這失哈 (sit-hap)使用佇牙髓發炎 (hoat-iām)肝淡 (kan-tāⁿ)發生佇牙髓腔,無 (pau)koa̍h根管的情形。挽髓述 (Bán-chhóe-su̍t)就是共牙髓腔佮根管的牙髓攏挽除,失哈使用佇發炎已經 (í-keng) (chhim)hō͘n (káu)根管的牙髓,嶺子 (sīm-chí)已經歹始 (pháiⁿ-sú) (壞死,necrosis) 的時陣。一般來講 (lâi-kóng),奶齒的根管治療成功率 (sêng-kong-lu̍t)較低 (khah-kē)尤其 (iû-kî)

奶齒疾病的預防 (ī-hông)[edit]

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